Celiac Disease: What about Hematological Manifestations?

Adel Alhabbal, Hossam Murad, Imad AbouKhamis


Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic disease that is triggered by gluten consumption in genetically susceptible patients, with a predominance approximating nearly 1% of the overall community. Although CD primarily involves the small intestine, it may also affect other bodily systems and present as a disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, individuals who have CD might visit a physician for appraisal of several hematological issues before reaching the diagnosis of CD. Secondary anemia due to vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency or due to malabsorption of iron are frequent problems in CD. In addition, individuals may reveal thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, venous thromboembolism, hyposplenism, and thrombocytosis. These hematological changes may represent the distinctive features of the disease and should cue the physician to test for CD in a suggestive clinical setting. Identification of non-typical extraintestinal manifestations, including hematologic ones, could provide a significant chance to increase the rate of CD diagnosis, as this disease is grouped with the most underdiagnosed chronic intestinal disorders throughout the world.

This review summarizes new evidence concerning the hematological manifestations of CD, and concentrates on applicable recommendations for physicians.


Celiac disease, Anemia, Neutropenia, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytosis, Hyposplenism

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