Molecular Structure Investigation of Gluten and Its Role in Celiac Disease

Mohammadsadegh Nadimifar, Mohammad Rostami Nejad, Mehran Habibi-Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Zali, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi


Coeliac disease, or celiac sprue, is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine with a genetic background. As a result of immunological responses to gluten consumption, small bowel villi will have damaged and cause malabsorption of nutrients. The symptoms of this disorder appeared due to presence of Gluten, a stored protein in the endosperm of grains such as wheat, barley and rye in the patient’s diet. Gluten made up of two protein components called gliadin and glutinine. An alcohol-soluble component, gliadin, is the main cause of Coeliac disease symptoms. The "N" terminal of gliadin usually has repetitive sequence rich in glutamine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Due to the mechanism of Coeliac disease, trans-glutaminease and glutamic acid in the N terminal of Gluten are played very important role. On the other hand, a human leukocyte antigen, HLA-DQ2, as an internal factor, plays a major role in the immunological response. In this study, in addition to introducing the mechanism of celiac disease, the molecular structure of gluten and it interacts with HLA-DQ2 will be reviewed.


Celiac Disease, Gluten, Gliadin, Glutamic Acid, Trans-Glutaminease, HLA-DQ2

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