A Review of the Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Halitosis

Sanam Javid Anbardan, Zahra Azizi, Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani


Halitosis generally refers to the unpleasant odor of breath irrespective of its origin. Oral malodour  could  result in diverse problems in daily life such as social embarrassment and can adversely affect individuals’ social interactions. Though many oral and non-oral sources  could give rise to halitosis,  it was mainly associated with oral cavity conditions and volatile sulfur compounds –produced by microbial activity-  were the main elements of oral malodor.

Objective measurement  was the first step in assessment to determine presence of malodour. Then,  taken a complete history including diet and habit history and performing a comprehensive physical examination contribute to the primary two steps for evaluating a patient complaining.

The oral malodor management  was mainly achieved by determining and eliminating the etiology of the condition. A major step in this regard  was improving the oral health by means of establishing appropriate oral hygiene measures and controlling tongue flora by brushing or scraping and also, use of antiseptics as adjuvant therapy.

Current article was systematic reviews the literature on prevalence, classification, diagnosis and treatment of halitosis.


Halitosis, Malodor, Bad breath, Etiology, Classification, Diagnosis

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