Biliary Tract Microbiota and Its Clinical Significance in the Development of Biliary Diseases

Parastoo Saniee, Farinoosh Alidaee, Marzieh Raoofimanesh


Currently, the microbiota is considered an irreplaceable component in the human body, which has a crucial role in different physiological functions. The gallbladder and hepatobiliary ducts are of the most unknown environments in the human body due to difficulty in collecting samples. For a long time, the biliary system of healthy people has been considered sterile. One reason for this hypothesis is the presence of several defensive mechanisms in the biliary system. Intestinal and upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota as well as systemic bacteremia, are considered possible sources of biliary microbiota. Molecular studies demonstrated that changes in the bile microbiota population were associated with the formation of gallstones. Furthermore, changes in the components and contents of the biliary microbiota could be possible factors in the development of gallbladder inflammatory diseases, including primary sclerosis cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis as well as biliary tract cancer. Clarifying the details of these relationships requires further studies. A detailed comprehension of the impact of the biliary microbiota on the development or progression of biliary diseases may facilitate the development of strategies for modulating the biliary microbiota in order to prevent the occurrence or treatment of such diseases.


Microbiota; Biliary tract; Biliary diseases

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